Posted by: Barry Bickmore | May 28, 2017

The Universal Model and Centrifuge Earth

This is part of a series of articles responding to the claims made in Dean Sessions’ Universal Model.  Click the link to see the introduction to the series.

The Universal Model (UM) gives a sort of clever (but badly flawed) explanation for the mechanism of Noah’s flood–the Earth is a variable-speed centrifuge!  So buckle up, dear reader, while we take a spin on Centrifuge Earth.

According to the UM, the Earth actually gets less dense toward its center.  The inner core is a ball of ice, the outer core is liquid water, and the mantle/crust are a mixture of rock and water.  (Will Meservy recently pointed out that this can easily be disproven by referring to the Earth’s measured moment of inertia, but let’s temporarily overlook that.)  This immediately introduces a problem, because buoyant forces would typically make the less dense substances rise to the top (or the outside, in the case of a spherical body like the Earth).  Dean Sessions tells us, however, that Centrifuge Earth counteracts this tendency.

I’m not going into a long explanation of centrifugal force here, but the idea is that when an object is rotated around an axis, it appears to experience a force pulling it toward the outside, away from the rotation axis.  For example, if you put a weight on a string and swing it around, the weight goes to the outside of the circle, as far as it can get from the axis of rotation.  When you are in the passenger seat of a car and you turn a corner going fast, you feel like you are being pulled toward the outside of the turn and you get squashed against the car door.  This is also the operating principle of a centrifuge.  A centrifuge is used to separate substances in a fluid by spinning them around.  Suppose, for example, I have some tiny clay particles suspended in some water.  When I put the suspension in test tubes in a centrifuge, the tubes are spun around so that their bottoms are swung outward, away from the spin axis.  The clay particles, which are more dense than the water, are forced away from the spin axis, and separate to the tube bottoms.  Watch this video to see what I’m talking about.

TAKE NOTE:  Within a spherical body that coheres due to gravity, the more dense materials tend to congregate in the center if they are free to move around.  Within a spinning body, the more dense materials tend to congregate as far as they can get from the axis of rotation.  Remember this, because it’s important.

In the UM (see UM, Vol. 1, p. 494, Fig. 8.3.1), the more dense crust is pushed to the outside via centrifugal force as the Earth spins around its axis.  A few thousand years ago, a comet passed close by the Earth, disrupting its rotation, so that gravity caused the denser crust to collapse down into the watery mush below, and water was forced upward past the crust through a bunch of “hydrofountains”.  The water covered the entire crust, to a depth of something like 30,000 feet.  After about a year the Earth’s rotation magically sped up again.  Oh… ahem… did I say “magically”?  What I meant to say was that when Dean Sessions gets around to publishing Vol. 3 of the UM, he will explain how the rotation of the Earth was sped back up because of a “Central Universal Energy source” that is Totally NOT Magical.

Subchapter 25.7 identifies evidence of the Revolutionary Universe, which includes the revolutions the planets make around the Sun and their axial spin. The Universal Energy Laws in the Universe System will explain how all matter in the universe is directed by a Central Universal Energy source that affects the rotation of the Earth on its axis, which keeps the Earth spinning at its constant rate. Without an external energy source, tidal friction and friction from the solar wind would slow the planet’s axial spin, eventually stopping it. It would also affect its revolutions around the Sun. The Principle of Resonance directs Universal Energy through all matter, from atoms to the Universe itself.  (UM, Vol. 1, pp. 493,495)

See?  There HAS TO BE some external energy source that keeps the Earth spinning, because otherwise the Earth’s rotation would be slowing down!  Okay, so maybe scientists can show that the Earth’s rotation really is slowing down by doing calculations based on the timing of ancient eclipses, but Dean Sessions has done his OWN calculations to show that tidal forces and solar winds should be slowing the rotation down WAY MORE….  Just kidding.  Dean Sessions is a “big picture” kind of guy who can’t be bothered with mundane tasks like “doing math” or “trying to understand actual scientific literature instead of using it to cherry-pick out-of-context quotations”…………………..

So anyway, when the Earth’s rotation TOTALLY UN-MAGICALLY sped up again, Sessions says the more dense crust was pulled out past most of the water, restoring land masses and such.  Now the perfect balance between gravitational attraction and centrifugal forces is restored!

Centrifugal force created by the Earth’s spin is thrusting the crust of the Earth away from the center of the Earth. However, this force is balanced by the Earth’s gravity, which is pulling the crust toward the Earth’s center. This gravitational force keeps us stuck to the Earth’s surfuce because we are also pulled toward its center. If this force were to suddenly vanish, we would fly off the planet, just like a rock released from a swinging sling. The crust of the Earth is held in remarkable equilibrium by the opposing forces of centrifugal motion and gravity–but this equilibrium can be disrupted.  (UM, Vol. 1, p. 495)

Like I said, it’s kind of a clever explanation, but even if I could get past the moment of inertia problem and the ad hoc nature of Sessions’ mysterious energy source, it would still be patently absurd.  Here’s why.

There is no centrifugal force operating at the Earth’s poles due to the Earth’s rotation.  

Centrifugal force pulls material away from the axis of rotation, and the force is proportional to both the mass and the spin radius.  At the Earth’s poles, the spin radius is ZERO.  Here’s how the Wikipedia article on Centrifugal Force explains how this plays out.

If an object is weighed with a simple spring balance at one of the Earth’s poles, there are two forces acting on the object: the Earth’s gravity, which acts in a downward direction, and the equal and opposite tension in the spring, acting upward. There is no net force acting on the object and the spring balance so the object does not accelerate and remains stationary. The balance shows the value of the force of gravity on the object.

When the same object is weighed on the equator the same two real forces act upon the object. However, the object is moving in a circular path as the Earth rotates. When considered in an inertial frame (that is to say, one that is not rotating with the Earth), some of the force of gravity is expended just to keep the object in its circular path (centripetal force). As such, less tension in the spring is required to counteract the ‘remaining’ force of gravity. Less tension in the spring would be reflected on a scale as less weight — about 0.3% less at the equator than at the poles. The concept of centrifugal force is not required. However, the Earth is not a perfect sphere, so an object at the poles is slightly closer to the center of the Earth than one at the equator; after accounting for both effects, the actual measured weight of the object is about 0.53% less on the equator.

It is generally more convenient to take measurements in a frame of reference rotating with the Earth. In this reference frame the object is stationary and to account for the loss in measured weight when the object is measured at the equator it is necessary to include the upward acting (inertial or fictitious) centrifugal force. In practice, this is often observed as a reduction in the force of gravity.

Obviously, gravitational attraction is MUCH STRONGER than any centrifugal force experienced on the Earth.  Measured weight (force of attraction toward the center of the Earth) is only changed by a few tenths of a percent going from the equator, where the maximum centrifugal force is experienced, to the poles, where ZERO centrifugal force is experienced.  Therefore, any differentiation of materials in the Earth in order of density would cause the denser material to move toward the center.  And isn’t it cool that this application of fundamental physics leads us to a conclusion that is supported by 1) the measured mass of the Earth, 2) the measured moment of inertia of the Earth, 3) the evidence of seismic wave velocities in the subsurface, and 4) a plausible theory about the origin of Earth’s magnetic field?

We’ll have to wait and see how Dean Sessions responds to this enormous hole in his model.  Hopefully, he won’t make up some “Universal Pushy-Outy Force” that draws on his “Central Universal Energy Source” to make denser material congregate around the outside of a planet.  [FULL DISCLOSURE:  Okay, I’ll admit that a tiny part of me does want Sessions to do this, because then I could point to this blog post to show that I came up with it first, and then demand it be called “Bickmore’s Universal Pushy-Outy Force.”  My life would then be complete.]



  1. And this may be why the model is being pushed as fact and anything against it as partisan idiocy. It’s meant to make the bible real again as opposed to patent fiction.

    Same reason for flat earth and aether.

    Make god real and pretend science to go in the classroom to indoctrinate a generation increasingly realising that there are so many gods, they’re likely all wrong, and none of them relevant.

  2. Maybe the hole in his theory will be filled by telling us there’s a hole at the poles, hidden by the UN from spying eyes…

  3. […] have the imagination to think through even the most basic consequences of his explanations.  In one of my recent posts, for example, I explained why his idea that the crust floats on a less dense substance because of […]

  4. Yes, the spherical shape means that the centrifugal force would have not effect at the poles. But the idea fails even before that. The only way to have denser material not sink is for the net force not to point downward. Even in weaker gravity, dense things sink and less dense things float upward. If Earth were spinning fast enough for centrifugal force to match gravity at the equator so dense rock could avoid sinking in less dense water / ice (about once per 1.4 hours if I calculated it correctly) then people, rocks, trees, etc. would feel no net force downward at the equator: standing on a bathroom scale would give a zero reading. For centrifugal force to _beat_ gravity so that denser things moved outward, Earth would have to spin even faster. Of course well before this Earth would be more discus-shaped instead of fairly close to spherical.

    • Yes, there is truly no end to the stupid one can mine from the UM.

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